The spheres

The spheres deployed by the SCALE systems have different tasks on the mission. Three of the spheres are used to measure the plasma characteristics on the ionosphere through the so called EFP instrument (Electric Field Probe). The spheres act as Langimur probes, and can be used to measure different parameters of the plasma such as the electron temperature, electron density and the electric potential of the plasma. One of the probes is equipped with the Uniprobe magnetometer (see figure on the left), a fluxgate magnetometer developed between the Space and Plasma physics department at KTH and the Lviv Centre of Institute of Space Research in Ukraine.